Aerial map of tsunami afflicted
1930s Dutch map
1930s Dutch Map of Krueng Raya
2005 Photo Gallery
Extensive coastal areas of the kabupaten (administrative
district) of Aceh Besar were devastated by the tsunami of 26th December
2004, which killed over 200,000 people. As part of the reconstruction
process for rehabilitating local government and cultural institutions,
and to attend the inauguration of the Aceh Cultural Institute (Institut
Kedbudayaan Aceh), Dr.Edwards E.McKinnon and Lim Chen Sian visited
Banda Aceh between Friday 3rd June and Tuesday 7th June 2005, and
also Medan, Sumatera Utara on the 7th through 9th June.
Interviews were conducted in Banda Aceh with the Heads of the Dinas
Kebudayaan Propinsi Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (Cultural Agency),
the Musium Negeri Aceh and the BP3 (Balai Pelestarian Peninggalan
Purbakala) which come under auspices of the Cultural Agency and
the Archaeological Institute (Balai Arkeologi Aceh dan Sumatera
Officials involved with the promotion of cultural and archaeological
activities in Aceh were interviewed and their concerns and felt
needs noted for further reference.
Drs Sujiman A. Musa, Head, Aceh Provincial Cultural Agency
Drs Nurdin A.R., Head, Museum Negeri Aceh
Drs T. Insa Ansari, Head, BP3, Aceh & North Sumatra
Drs Lucas Partanda Koestoro, Head, Archaeological Institute (Balai
Arkeologi Medan), North Sumatra & Aceh
Drs Dyah Hidayati, Archaeologist, BP3, Banda Aceh
Drs Toto Harryanto S.S., Archaeologist, BP3, Banda Aceh
Drs Ketut Wiradnyansa, Archaeologist, Balai Arkeologi, Medan.
Others Interviewed include:
Purnomo Sidi, Manager Aceh Office, GTZ-ProLH (Indonesian-German
Ir.Soehardi Hartono, Excutive Director, Badan Warisan Sumatra, Medan
Azher A.Arif, Architect, City Redevelopment Project, Architecture
Department Univeristi Syiah Kudah, Banda Aceh
Field visits to fifteen archaeological sites were
conducted in Kabupaten Aceh Besar. Of these, seven had been affected
to a greater or lesser degree by the tsunami.
1. Gunongan, monument, Banda Aceh.
2. Makam Sultan Iskandar Thani (1637-1641), gave complex, Banda
Aceh [adjacent to the above]
3. Makam Tengku di Kandang, grave complex, Persinggahan,
Four grave markers (‘nisan)’ of which only two remain.
4. Makam, Un-named, Kp. Pande, Banda Aceh
Grave complex: severely damaged.
5. Makam Puteri Ijo, Kp. Pande, Banda Aceh
Grave complex: severely damaged
6. Makam Raja-raja Kp. Pande, Kp. Pande, Banda Aceh
Grave complex: severely damaged
7. Makam Tuan di Kandang, Kp. Pande, Banda Aceh
Grave complex: severely damaged – moveable nisan collect by
local community and replaced within perimeter
8. Desa Lamtengoh, Kecamatan Lambadeuk
former habitation site (causeway),
Village severely affected, mosque damaged, former grave complexes
disturbed. Area partly inundated and tidal fishponds swamped. N.B.
this and the adjacent area of Lambadeuk have been subject to subsidence
for over a century.
9. Desa Lambadeuk, Kecamatan Lambadeuk
former habitation site with several burial sites, village severely
affected, mosque demolished and burial complexes disturbed or destroyed
10. Ujung Batëe Kapal, Kecamatan Mesjid Raya
10.1 Ujung Batëe Kapal, Benteng Inong Bale:
Fortification: c16/17 masonry artillery emplacement overlooking
the Krueng Raya.
10.2. Lhok Cut:
Extensive former medieval habitation site on eroded soils over coral
limestone with a c16/17 earthwork closing off the mouth of a valley:
severe erosion of beach above bedrock, three significant stone-lined
wells and deposits of domestic refuse. Numerous early nisan, one
now lost. Kota Cina phase material, c11/14 including traces of metal
working and ‘Indian’ earthenware (Kota Cina redware).
10.3 Kuta Lubhok.
Fortification: c16/17 masonry firing platform and gun emplacement
with bastions at either end, overlooking Telok Lamreh, river mouth
and beach with black and white sand. Eastern bastion somewhat dilapidated.
Site associated with Sultan Iskandar Muda. Early grave complex to
landward side of fortification. Graves of Sultan Suleiman 608H (1211
C.E.) and an unidentified person of 720H (1320 C.E.). (Montana 1997).
11. Desa Lamreh: Benteng Iskandar Muda
Recently rehabilitated c16/17 rectangular masonry fortification
with gun ports, associated with Sultan Iskandar Muda. Tsunami damage
to S.E. wall which has collapsed completely. See official report.
14. Desa Ladong: Cot Me
Medieval habitation site, extent unknown. Reported by landowner
Mr Hasbullah, 1995. Important ‘Kota Cina’ phase material
c11/14. (Edwards McKinnon 1996). No apparent damage from tsunami
as this site remains undisturbed apart from farmer’s limited
excavations for a fishpond during 1995.
15. Ladong: Indrapatra
Fortification: two rehabilitated rectangular c16/17 masonry defensive
positions and masonry remains located immediately behind the beach,
overlooking the inlet at Ladong. Tsunami damage to modern walling.
16. Desa Ladong & Desa Ruyung: WW II Japanese pillboxes
Four pillboxes of varying designs and construction: three on the
beach, of which one is partially inundated, and one located in a
field, landward of the main Banda Aceh / Krueng Raya road.