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  Aceh Post Tsunami Archaeological Survey & Heritage Sites Report June 2005  
  Introduction | Aceh | Jambi

Aerial map of tsunami afflicted Banda Aceh.

1930s Dutch map

1930s Dutch Map of Krueng Raya

Aceh 2005 Photo Gallery


Extensive coastal areas of the kabupaten (administrative district) of Aceh Besar were devastated by the tsunami of 26th December 2004, which killed over 200,000 people. As part of the reconstruction process for rehabilitating local government and cultural institutions, and to attend the inauguration of the Aceh Cultural Institute (Institut Kedbudayaan Aceh), Dr.Edwards E.McKinnon and Lim Chen Sian visited Banda Aceh between Friday 3rd June and Tuesday 7th June 2005, and also Medan, Sumatera Utara on the 7th through 9th June.

Interviews were conducted in Banda Aceh with the Heads of the Dinas Kebudayaan Propinsi Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (Cultural Agency), the Musium Negeri Aceh and the BP3 (Balai Pelestarian Peninggalan Purbakala) which come under auspices of the Cultural Agency and the Archaeological Institute (Balai Arkeologi Aceh dan Sumatera Utara), Medan.

Officials involved with the promotion of cultural and archaeological activities in Aceh were interviewed and their concerns and felt needs noted for further reference.

Drs Sujiman A. Musa, Head, Aceh Provincial Cultural Agency
Drs Nurdin A.R., Head, Museum Negeri Aceh
Drs T. Insa Ansari, Head, BP3, Aceh & North Sumatra
Drs Lucas Partanda Koestoro, Head, Archaeological Institute (Balai Arkeologi Medan), North Sumatra & Aceh
Drs Dyah Hidayati, Archaeologist, BP3, Banda Aceh
Drs Toto Harryanto S.S., Archaeologist, BP3, Banda Aceh
Drs Ketut Wiradnyansa, Archaeologist, Balai Arkeologi, Medan.

Others Interviewed include:
Purnomo Sidi, Manager Aceh Office, GTZ-ProLH (Indonesian-German Enviroment Program)
Ir.Soehardi Hartono, Excutive Director, Badan Warisan Sumatra, Medan
Azher A.Arif, Architect, City Redevelopment Project, Architecture Department Univeristi Syiah Kudah, Banda Aceh

Field Visits

Field visits to fifteen archaeological sites were conducted in Kabupaten Aceh Besar. Of these, seven had been affected to a greater or lesser degree by the tsunami.

1. Gunongan, monument, Banda Aceh.

2. Makam Sultan Iskandar Thani (1637-1641), gave complex, Banda Aceh [adjacent to the above]

3. Makam Tengku di Kandang, grave complex, Persinggahan, Banda Aceh.
Four grave markers (‘nisan)’ of which only two remain.

4. Makam, Un-named, Kp. Pande, Banda Aceh
Grave complex: severely damaged.

5. Makam Puteri Ijo, Kp. Pande, Banda Aceh
Grave complex: severely damaged

6. Makam Raja-raja Kp. Pande, Kp. Pande, Banda Aceh
Grave complex: severely damaged

7. Makam Tuan di Kandang, Kp. Pande, Banda Aceh
Grave complex: severely damaged – moveable nisan collect by local community and replaced within perimeter

8. Desa Lamtengoh, Kecamatan Lambadeuk
former habitation site (causeway),
Village severely affected, mosque damaged, former grave complexes
disturbed. Area partly inundated and tidal fishponds swamped. N.B. this and the adjacent area of Lambadeuk have been subject to subsidence for over a century.

9. Desa Lambadeuk, Kecamatan Lambadeuk
former habitation site with several burial sites, village severely affected, mosque demolished and burial complexes disturbed or destroyed

10. Ujung Batëe Kapal, Kecamatan Mesjid Raya

10.1 Ujung Batëe Kapal, Benteng Inong Bale:
Fortification: c16/17 masonry artillery emplacement overlooking the Krueng Raya.

10.2. Lhok Cut:
Extensive former medieval habitation site on eroded soils over coral limestone with a c16/17 earthwork closing off the mouth of a valley: severe erosion of beach above bedrock, three significant stone-lined wells and deposits of domestic refuse. Numerous early nisan, one now lost. Kota Cina phase material, c11/14 including traces of metal working and ‘Indian’ earthenware (Kota Cina redware).

10.3 Kuta Lubhok.
Fortification: c16/17 masonry firing platform and gun emplacement with bastions at either end, overlooking Telok Lamreh, river mouth and beach with black and white sand. Eastern bastion somewhat dilapidated. Site associated with Sultan Iskandar Muda. Early grave complex to landward side of fortification. Graves of Sultan Suleiman 608H (1211 C.E.) and an unidentified person of 720H (1320 C.E.). (Montana 1997).

11. Desa Lamreh: Benteng Iskandar Muda
Recently rehabilitated c16/17 rectangular masonry fortification with gun ports, associated with Sultan Iskandar Muda. Tsunami damage to S.E. wall which has collapsed completely. See official report.

14. Desa Ladong: Cot Me
Medieval habitation site, extent unknown. Reported by landowner Mr Hasbullah, 1995. Important ‘Kota Cina’ phase material c11/14. (Edwards McKinnon 1996). No apparent damage from tsunami as this site remains undisturbed apart from farmer’s limited excavations for a fishpond during 1995.

15. Ladong: Indrapatra
Fortification: two rehabilitated rectangular c16/17 masonry defensive positions and masonry remains located immediately behind the beach, overlooking the inlet at Ladong. Tsunami damage to modern walling.

16. Desa Ladong & Desa Ruyung: WW II Japanese pillboxes
Four pillboxes of varying designs and construction: three on the beach, of which one is partially inundated, and one located in a field, landward of the main Banda Aceh / Krueng Raya road.